03 July 2008

Story from the American Revolution: The Arrest of General Lee

A scene from Ethan Allen's play, Washington; Or, The Revolution. A Drama. The scene takes place in Basking Ridge, New Jersey.

"SCENE IV. A room in headquarters of GEN. CHARLES LEE, of the Continental Army, at Baskingridge, New Jersey. Time: Forenoon, December 13, 1776.

Enter CAPT. STANDISH and "FARMER GEORGE," now CAPT. GEORGE ALDEN, of the Continental Army. Both in uniform.

CAPT. STANDISH. Dear friend of peaceful days — I rejoice to meet you, though it's a great Surprise.

CAPT. ALDEN. I can almost fancy, Dick, seeing Your honest face, that I am home again.

STANDISH. 1 notice, George, That you have now your straps, as well as I.

ALDEN. Yes. I am a Captain — And Aid to General Charles Lee.

STANDISH. And I am a Captain — and Aid to General Washington.

ALDEN. Dick, I heard you were a prisoner.

STANDISH. Two months ago I was a prisoner. But I have quickly gained my freedom, As you see.

ALDEN. The brutal Cunningham, after all, Must have a streak of kindness to let you Go. How did you escape from him?

STANDISH. I told him of a dream.

ALDEN. And was a soldier managed from a dream?

STANDISH. It was a weird visitor of the night. It surely frightened him. He shunned me as A ghost — And soon got rid of me.

ALDEN. I shall resort to dreams hereafter.

STANDISH. But to business. I am the bearer of orders to General Lee from the Commander-in-Chief, Now encamped upon the Delaware. They Are to be to be delivered immediately.
[Alden receives the papers from Standish.]

ALDEN. I will hand them to the General, Who is in his private chamber. I will return at once to you.
[Alden retires with the papers.]

STANDISH. [musing] My friend George Alden, An aid to this man? I do not rejoice At this; for I could wish him a better Fortune.
[Alden returns.]

ALDEN. The General requests that you await His answer. Dick, what were you saying to Yourself as I came back?


ALDEN. Just now, as I returned.

STANDISH. Nothing worth repeating. I was musing, George.

ALDEN. Yes, Dick. No secrets from me! I heard you Say, "I could wish hiom a better fortune." Tell me-- what meant you by this?

STANDISH. Will you have it, George? Old friend, whose last crust would be half mine, Shall I tel, you?

ALDEN. Dick! Dick Standish-- You have grown false to me unless you tell Me.

STANDISH. Are we quite alone? No danger of other ears?

ALDEN. In this mansion of bygone days, If you should shout, besides myself the walls Alone would be your listener.

STANDISH. Then George-- I could wish you a better fortune than That of Aid to this man Charles Lee. I believe him to be a cused traitor! I echo no man's opinion, but I Have my own. As the confidential Aid To Washington I have learned much, and, As I think, know him well.

ALDEN. Dick! Dick! Ought I to stand here and listen and not resent, This assault upon my superior? Remember, Dick, I wear a sword — And am a soldier,

STANDISH. George — here we meet as friends. Put up the sword and forget that we Are soldiers. This man Lee, is in rank Insubordination at this moment To our great Commander. The orders I Have just brought require him at once to join His strength to Washington's, now across the Delaware. I have carried such before And they were of no avail. They will be So now. O George ! if you knew the heavy Load our Chief daily bears from necessity, You would burst with anger, as I do now To have it needlessly augmented.

ALDEN. By Heavens, Dick ! Make good your words — and though he ranked me as The sun planets, he should know me as Alien to his conduct!

STANDISH. He has friends in Congress, The seat of Civil power; and hence is Sustained as a daily menace to our Cause. How often, in this world, does virtue Unwittingly lay her tribute upon The brow of vice, and after seeks to cleanse The act of wrong by deep repentance. This man Lee was in the South, and there did Little more than cavil at better men. After the disaster on Long Island He was ordered north to assist our General. Would that he had staid where he was harmless, And been food for Southern fevers!

ALDEN. It was not his fault that he came, however.

STANDISH. The fault was afterward. The retreat from New York was done when Harlem and White Plains came tapping upon Its heels. With the certainty of sunshine When the storm abates, so Washington saw Safety in retreat across the Hudson. Early in November a deserter from Fort Washington, gave Howe its plans, and thus The key for capture. Putnam crossed with some Force to Fort Lee, then in command of Greene Which also included Fort Washington, On the Eastern bank.3 General Lee, receiving Orders to follow, refused obedience - And openly criticised his chief. His command was farther up the river.

ALDEN. Then Lee was not responsible For Fort Washington and its loss This was the work of Greene.

STANDISH. Not directly. But it was impropriety to belittle The plans of his superior. Greene — than Whom no truer patriot ever carried sword — Construed his orders to retreat as Optional with him to hold Fort Washington or not, and so decided That Magaw defend it. Congress — the Bungler will ever spoil a master's work — Would have it thus, and Greene was so far excused. On the night before the assault, I was In the boat that carried Washington toward The eastern shore. In midstream Putnam and Greene were met, and counsel had, such as the Stream afforded. It was too late to repair The wrong. Greene contended, even then, that Howe would attack in vain. All returned to Fort Lee, and our General awaited the Coming day with the gravest apprehensions. The end you know.

ALDEN. It was a grievous loss. Twenty-five hundred of our best soldiers, And much needed stores !

STANDISH. It was more grievous To witness the sore distress of our Great-hearted chieftain. Through all, not a word Of censure, though the offense was heavy. He never does complain. If he would, it were Much better. Distress may fly, in words that Blaze and burn, from the overburdened soul, When hot temper holds ajar the door. But so patient and so undismayed ! There is something of mystery about This man that inspires a sense of awe which No other mortal gives. I tell you, George — He is the one hope we have of victory; And upon his single palm he bears up our Falling fortunes, as God bears up the world I

ALDEN. How cruel to add in weight, A needless feather to his burdens !

STANDISH. After the fall of Fort Washington, Cornwallis commanded in New Jersey, With directions to follow Washington And to destroy him. Fort Lee next was Threatened. Greene, now all obedience, Retreated and joined his General at Newark. General Lee, your Commander here, was still At Kings' Bridge with more than seven thousand men. Short enlistments — that military curse Still upon us — and other casualties Had reduced the army now west of the Hudson to ahout three thousand. Lee was Peremptorily ordered to cross. Then, as now, I conveyed the order.

ALDEN. I never knew of such command. I need not ask if Lee refused.

STANDISH. He refused — He still refuses, and will refuse to-day ! Washington, fell back from Newark as Cornwallis came in, and bivouacked at New Brunswick. Lee still disobeyed. Flushed with Victory, the brothers Howe scattered wide Their proclamations of pardon — a tempting Bait to men so sore of heart as ours ! Even delegates in Congress accepted The terms, and lesser men by thousands went Trooping to British power. With his army Dissolving around him, and hope blown upon The freezing breath of winter, it was Washington alone who could say — I will not despair.

ALDEN. Will the world Ever know this mighty man; or knowing, Will it appreciate?

STANDISH. In this extremity, Schuyler sent seven regiments from the North to the aid of our distressed Commander; To the aid of this mighty man, as you Call him — now mighty in his woe ! On December first — this very month I speak of — How dates of trial fasten upon one's Memory as with fangs of steel — Cornwallis Still pushing on, Washington left New Brunswick Then he crossed the Delaware, pleading now With Lee since orders failed. Meantime, and on December third — for I would be accurate When accusation loads my speech — this lazy General, this Charles Lee, crossed the Hudson and Advanced to where we this moment stand — In the center of New Jersey. Does he come to join Washington? God forgive him, for I never will ! He has come to intercept the regiments From Schuyler. By virtue of his rank this Man turns them to his own command. He has Sent an officer to help defend Rhode Island. If sent to the moon he would be as Serviceable; and he intends to follow With his stolen soldiers.George ! Have I made good my words, that this man Is a villain and traitor to the Land we fight for?

ALDEN. So well, Dick, That I shall seek as soon as may be, other Service. With him I cannot remain. The Serpent that strikes and kills were a more honest Friend, since it gives some warning of its Intended battle. Here comes the General.
[Enter GEN. LEE in morning gown and slippers.]

LEE [To STANDISH]. Inclosed Is my answer to General Washington. How is the General? Across New Jersey He seemed light of foot. One might say he were A fugitive from closely pressing powers.

STANDISH. If he were light of foot, It was to hurry to that desired goal Where end our trials. There are some who are Slow of foot on this very mission.

LEE. Give my considerations to the General.

STANDISH. And thanks I give to you in his name. He will doubtless be overjoyed thereat. [STANDISH retires.]

LEE [To ALDEN]. What meant the Captain, That some were slow of foot?

ALDEN. Through these drifting snows, It is nearer truth to say "slow of foot." Thus I took him.

LEE. A shrewd interpretation, And, I guess, a just one. [ALDEN retires.] The alluring promise of my scheme for A separate command overtops my hopes. If the supreme command should quickly Follow, then my end is gained. This revolt Were throttled here, if England held forth the Offer of deserved rank within her armies. At the head of this uprising, I could Compel this offer as the price of peace. What to me is independence — the end And all of these Confederate braggarts — But a means to help my purpose? Charles Lee, Late of European legions, now serves Charles Lee of the Continental Army, And gives to empty air the sham of Deeper feeling. John Adams — whose honesty In this strife gives weight to counsel — favors Me as the military head that should be.u A powerful support ! So do shrewd men Often thrive by aid of dullards, too shallow To comprehend. Greene and Gates are partial. Washington commands me to join him ! Rush — since I have told him this — knows that I Will not do so." Shall I, once of high estate In the army of a king, consent at last To follow the commands of this surveyor Of sheep-browsed hills? His cheap and hungry Followers — the spawn of England's refuse Population driven to these shores — I Despise, as I do him. Yet, it serves me Well still further to dissemble. I have Here cut off and taken to myself three Thousand soldiers, which the gentle-mannered Schuyler sent to him from the North. This further cripples him and strengthens him. So may it be : While Congress, or its leading Spirits, remain my approving friends, Washington may plead and fret and fail. He stands in my way. Then let him fail.
[CAPT. ALDEN rushes in, greatly alarmed.]

ALDEN. The Cavalry ! The British Cavalry are upon us ! Away, General, away, and save yourself !

LEE. [Also in great alarm.] Heaven help us! Where can I go? The house is surrounded ! [Looking from the window.] We are prisoners!

[Thundering noises are heard at the room doors. They are burst open, and British troopers rush in from each side of the room.]

BRITISH CAPTAIN. You are prisoners. [Flourishing his sword. ] Do you surrender?

LEE. Yes — we surrender. I have not my sword. Shall I get my sword? I will secure it For you. [Moves off as if to leave the room.]

BRITISH CAPTAIN. [Stepping in front of LEE.] Never mind the sword ! We want you. General Howe will he glad To see you.

LEE. Shall I dress to go with you? I will prepare myself. [Again moves to leave the room.]

BRITISH CAPTAIN. [Still bars his exit.] We run no risk, General, You will not pass.

LEE. [rubbing his hands in abject submission.] Gentlemen ! Spare my life ! spare my life ! I trust you will Do me no harm. I entreat you, gentlemen, As soldiers of the King — of my King — do You mark me? of my King, whom I have much, Offended — let me live ! I have been drawn Into this — this most foolish revolt. I Will explain to General Howe. I know him well. We have fought as comrades together — a good And valiant man. I will explain to him.

BRITISH CAPTAIN.Then do so when you may. Soldiers, secure your prisoners!
[Soldiers advance and bind both GEN. LEE and ALDEN.]

LEE. Oh! Oh! [Cringing and entreating.] This is so wrong— so wrong to treat a General Thus. But save me, Captain ! Save me from Violence ! I will make amends for what I have done. I will ! I will !

BRITISH CAPTAIN. To horse with both prisoners — And away ! To horse ! to horse !
[All retire.]"

The scene above is a fictional account of historical events that took place at Widow White's Tavern in Basking Ridge. Although the building is no longer in existence, a marker is at the site of the tavern. It was located at 4 Colonial Drive, near the road's intersection with South Finley Avenue (across the street from St. James R.C. Church).

Source: Allen, Ethan. Washington; Or, The Revolution. A Drama. In Blank verse. Founded upon the Historic Events of the War for American Independence. New York: F. Tennyson Neely, 1899. (Google books edition, http://books.google.com/books?id=2JEzA1KAaXYC, downloaded 2 July 2008).

01 July 2008

Haunted Memories: The Witches' Tree and the Pirate Tree, Burlington

One of the more interesting stories from New Jersey's past, excerpted from Barber and Howe's The Historical Collections of the State of New Jersey.

"There were two old trees of haunted memory. The first is The Witches' Tree, a large and noble buttonwood, still standing on that beautiful portion of Green Bank formerly occupied by William Franklin, when governor of New Jersey. It was planted, by his direction, by old Adam Shepherd, father to the well-known Ben. Shepherd. This was held to be the favorite resort of witches, who (though they were, like all the early reminiscences of the place, strictly English) danced around it after the manner of the Kettenlanz of the German witches on the Hartz mountains. The other was The Pirate Tree, a large black-walnut, the enormous stump of which may still be seen in the tanyard on Wood-st. Superstition held it famous, as the place of deposit for gold and silver, by Blackbeard and his associate pirates. It is said that they landed one stormy, terrific night, loaded with an unusual quantity of plunder, which they buried in silence at the root of this tree, which took its name from this circumstance. They covered the gold with 'a broad flat stone,' and having done so, their chieftain called aloud, 'Who'll guard this wealth ?' We should have mentioned, that the transaction was performed in darkness, as well as in silence ; but at this question, a vivid flash of lightning revealed the pale and appalled countenances of the pirates, who, though ready at all times to dare death and to trample on the laws of Heaven and of man, were yet unwilling to offer themselves a sacrifice, to be murdered in cold blood. Some one, however, must be interred with the gold to protect it from depredation; and at last one of the most reckless outlaws, a Spaniard, who had long merited the honors of the neighboring Gallows Hill, stepped forward and offered himself as their victim. He was shot through the brain by Blackbeard, with a charmed bullet, which penetrated without occasioning a wound, thus leaving him as well prepared as ever for mortal combat, except the trifling circumstance of his being stone dead. He was buried in an erect position ; and so well has he performed his trust, that, for any evidence we possess to the contrary, the treasure remains there to the present day. On one occasion, it is said, an attempt was made to regain it; but the hazardous deed will not be likely to be repeated while the attendant circumstances are remembered. It is suspected by some (though tradition is silent on this point) that a black dog was buried with the pirate, since an apparition of that shape has been seen in Wood-st. by the believers. These supernatural appearances are rarely beheld in the present day, — for want, doubtless, of that faith which is the only possible evidence of certain unseen things. We will close this legend, for the introduction of which we crave our readers' pardon, with an admirable specimen of the characteristics of an old witch song, which is represented as having been heard from the witches dancing with linked hands around their favorite tree on the night of the Spaniard's interment. Just at its close, they were intruded upon by some beings of mortal mould, and uttering something like the exclamation of the ancient Scottish witches,
" Horse and hattock in the devil's name,"

they were all instantly seated upon broomsticks, and rode away at a speed exceeding that of the forked lightning. Their next voyage, it is said, was disastrous and fatal.

CONCERT OF WITCHES. Merrily daunce we, merrily daunce we, around the sycamore tree ! Full many will daunce this terrible night, but none will be merry but we. The ships shall daunce on the yesty waves, the billows shall daunce and roll, And many a screech of despair shall rise from many a sin-sick soule ! Be merry, be merry ; the lightning's flash itself were sufficient light, And we've got us a phosphor-gleaming corse to be our candle to-night. There never was night more foul and black — there never was fiercer blast — Oh many a prank the winds will play, ere this terrible night be past ! Be merry ; the fiends are roving now — and death is abroad on the wind — Join hands in the daunce, to-morrow's light full many a corse shall find. Our sisters are out on mischief bent — the cows their milk shall fail, The old maid's cat shall be rode to death, and her lap-dog lose his taile. The fanner in vain shall seek his horse — who fastened his stable door With key and with bolt — if he has not nailed a horse-shoe firmly o'er.

IST WITCH. I saw dame Brady sitting alone, And I dried up the marrow within her hip bone. When she arose she could scarcely limp, — Why did I do it ? — she called me foul imp !

2D WITCH. I scratched the Justice's swine on the head — When.he wakes in the morning he'll find them dead. And I saw the Pirates land on the shore, Loaded with gold, but crimsoned with gore.

3D WITCH. I saw them bury their golden store at the root of the Pirate tree : Bold Blackboard cried, " Who'll guard this wealth?" and oh ! 'twas mercy to see How even the wretch who fears not hell, turns pale at the thought of death ! But one bold knave stood bravely out and offered himself for scath. " I'll watch it," quo' he — " for these forty years, I've wandered o'er land and sea, And I'm tired of doing the devil's work — so bury me under the tree : And better I'll rest as I guard this wealth, than you in the realms below, Where the soul cannot burst amid endless groans — where the Pirate's soul must go. So they shot him dead with a charmed ball, and they laid a broad flat stone Now wo betide the daring fool who seeketh that gold to win. Let mortals beware of the noble wretch who standeth that grave within.

4TH WITCH. I saw the Pirates enter their boat. Sullen they looked, as well they mote— I wore a shape which they shook to see, And they made the sign of the cross at me. But the sign of the cross avails not those Whose sins have made all the saints their foes. And they fired at me an idle shot, For powder and ball could harm me not. But skaith and ruth shall be theirs, I ken ; We brook not defiance from mortal men. There they go rowing adowne the streame, I see their oars in the lightning's glcame, They are singing the dirge of their comrade low; Sisters, what say you — let's curse them now.

CONCERT OF WITCHES. Away ! away ! the night is foule, but fouler by far are ye ! The storm is fierce, but fiercer by far is your terrible destiny ! Your vessel shall sink amid mountain waves, and the fearful blasts of hell, And you'll dwell for aye with the foulc, foule fiend, whom here you have served so well ! Some shall go down with a bubbling groan on the ocean's pathless way, Some shall be dashed on the flinty rocks — the vulture and sea-bird's prey, Some shall be washed alive on shore, to die on the gallows tree, But gold, or wife, or children dcare, none, none shall live ever to see. Away, away, while the tempest howls, and the thunders are heard in wrath, Away on your errand of guilt and blood, and destruction attend your path !"

Source: Barber, John Warner and Henry Howe. Historical collections of the state of New Jersey containing a general collection of the most interesting facts, traditions, biographical sketches, anecdotes, etc. relating to its history and antiquities ; with geographical descriptions of every township in the state. New York: S. Tuttle, 1846. (Google books edition, http://books.google.com/books?id=8PK4DEvn22cC&printsec=frontcover, downloaded 1 July 2008).

09 November 2007

Rev. Robert Finley: Founder of the American Colonization Society

Robert Finley was born in 1772 in Princeton, New Jersey, the son of James Finley (b. 1737). The elder Finley, a native of Glasgow Scotland, immigrated to New Jersey in 1769 at the urging of his friend, Rev. John Witherspoon, who, a year earlier, was named president of the College of New Jersey, later known as Princeton University. Finley then established himself as a weaver, and was an elder in the local Presbyterian church.

His son, Robert, began his educational career under the tutelage of Rev. Ashbel Green, who eventually became president of Princeton College. A student who excelled in his studies in Greek, Latin, and other subjects in the humanities, Finley was admitted at the age of eleven to Princeton College, and was awarded his Bachelor of Arts degree at the age of fifteen in 1787. Shortly after his graduation, Finley, at the suggestion of Dr. Witherspoon, accepted a teaching position in the local grammar school. After a strenuous start, mainly caused by discipline problems with students in the grammar school who were older than their instructor, Finley overcame the situation through the staunch support of his mentor, Dr. Witherspoon.

Shortly after his tenure at the grammar school in Princeton, Finley was to head a seminary in Maryland, which never came to fruition, since the academy had been destroyed by fire. Soon thereafter, he returned to New Jersey, and was hired to teach at the academy in Allentown, New Jersey. During his time in Allentown, Finley was offered the prospect of employment as a teacher in Charleston, South Carolina, which he accepted.

It was in Charleston that Finley slowly realized that his calling was to the service of God, and returned to Princeton in 1792, where he began his study of theology under the supervision of Dr. Witherspoon. To earn his living while pursuing his studies, Finley taught at the grammar school in Princeton where he began his teaching career a few years earlier. On September 16, 1794, Finley’s efforts were rewarded when he was licensed to preach the gospel by the Presbytery of New Brunswick.

In April 1795, the congregation in Basking Ridge, New Jersey offered the pastorate to Finley, which he accepted. On June 17, 1795, Rev. Robert Finley was ordained pastor of the congregation, where he would remain for twenty-two years. Shortly after undertaking the pastorate in Basking Ridge, Finley started instructing boys in preparation for college in a classical school established in 1751 by his predecessor, Rev. Samuel Kennedy. However, it was under Finley’s pastorate that the school flourished and became a permanent institution, with the completion of the schoolhouse on West Oak Street in 1809. This school would later become known as the Brick Academy. Among the students educated here were Theodore Frelinghuysen (1787 – 1862), U.S. Senator and president of Rutgers College, and Samuel Louis Southard (1787 – 1842), also a U.S. Senator and Secretary of the Navy.

However, Rev. Finley’s career was not limited to education and religion. He was also an ardent proponent of giving free African-Americans the opportunity to settle and colonize in Africa, for, he believed, they could not ever participate fully in nor completely reap the benefits of living in American society. He elaborated more fully on the subject, claiming that the United States “should be cleared of them; we should send to Africa a population partially civilized and Christianized for its benefits; our blacks themselves would be put in better condition.” Consequently, he felt that the colonization scheme would resolve the matter. His efforts took him to the national stage in 1816, when Rev. Finley garnered support for his cause in Washington, which included men such as James Monroe, Daniel Webster, Henry Clay, and Francis Scott Key. This resulted in the formation of the American Society for Colonizing the Free People of Color in the United States, more commonly known as the American Colonization Society. A colony called Liberia was established shortly thereafter on the west coast of Africa, which by 1820, had a population of 12,000 black Americans.

Because of the notoriety he gained from the colonization issue, Rev. Finley was named president of the University of Georgia in Athens in 1817. Due to his extensive traveling that year, both from his journey from New Jersey to Georgia, and an exhaustive fundraising tour for the school throughout Georgia, Finley became ill, and later that year, died at the age of 45.

Rev. Finley was married to Esther Caldwell, the daughter of Rev. James Caldwell, who was pastor of the Presbyterian congregation in Elizabeth-Town (later Elizabeth), New Jersey. Together, they had nine children.


Manuscript Collection 12, Reverend Robert Finley, D.D. Memoirs and Biography Collection, The Bernards Township Library (Basking Ridge, NJ).

21 October 2007

30 October 1938: Martians Invade New Jersey

On Halloween eve, 1938, people were listening to Orson Welles's Mercury Theatre Presentation on CBS radio, enjoying the music of Ramon Raquello and his Orchestra. Suddenly, an announcer interrupted the show with a news bulletin that an astronomer had sighted an "incandescent gas" emanating from the planet Mars. Afterwards, the network reverted to its regularly-scheduled programming, only to be preempted by another emergency news report, which informed its listening audience that a "huge flaming object" struck a farm in Grover's Mill, New Jersey. A newscaster at the scene of the crash, in an alarmed voice, said that an alien emerged from what appeared to be a spacecraft, and "it glistens like wet leather. But that face-- it... it is indescribable." The alien invaders then turn on the gathering crowd of onlookers at the farm in Grover's Mill, and fire their "heat rays" on them.

More bulletins came into the radio station-- railroads, bridges, and cities were blown up by the Martians throughout the United States. The U.S. military proved unable to fight the aliens, who began to spray poison gas through the air as they advanced toward New York City. As a reporter was broadcasting from the top of the CBS building in New York, the Martians began to invade New York, and he, like many others, collapsed from the effects of the poison gas. Towards the end of the broadcast, all that was heard was a ham radio operator repeating "2X2L calling CQ.. Isn't anyone on the air? Isn't anyone on the air? Isn't there... anyone?" The world was saved, though, as the Martians died from exposure to germs and bacteria present on Earth.

Obviously, Martians never landed on that day in Grover's Mill, New Jersey, or anywhere else. It was Orson Welles's dramatization of H.G. Wells's War of the Worlds that was broadcast that evening (for the orginal audio broadcast in its entirety, click here). Although disclaimers announcing that the program was a fictional account were run before the show began, at twenty minutes into the broadcast, and at the forty-minute mark of the hour, there were reports of panic in the newspapers the next day.

In Newark, New Jersey, fifteen people were treated for shock at St. Michael's Hospital; twenty families in the same city wrapped themselves in wet towels, and created traffic jams as they searched for gas masks, the police, and ambulances. Meanwhile, further south, scientists from Princeton University set out in search of the first Martian landing site in nearby Grover's Mill. The Memphis Press-Scimitar called in its editorial staff to run a special edition on the Martian bombings of Chicago and St. Louis, and the pending invasion of Memphis. The New York Times alone received 875 telephone calls from panic-stricken listeners of the program. The Associated Press, consequently, issued a bulletin reassuring the public that the world was not coming to an end.

How had so many been taken in by the fictionalized account of the Martian invasion? One of the reasons was the realistic style that Orson Welles used in creating the fictional newsflashes, perfectly mimicking CBS radio's emergency news broadcast procedure. Many radio listeners, however, missed the disclaimers for the Mercury Theatre Presentation on CBS, as they were tuned in to the Chase and Sanborn Hour on NBC, which was hosted by Don Ameche, and featured Edgar Bergen and Nelson Eddy as the entertainment for that show. After the first comedy act on the Chase and Sanborn show was over, many in the listening audience began tuning around the dial, and came upon the War of the Worlds broadcast as the first "newsflashes" were broadcast, not realizing that what they were hearing was a fictional account. Orson Welles apparently was well aware that many listeners would tune into his Mercury Theatre Presentation after Chase and Sanborn's first act, and deliberately timed the first "news report" to coincide with it.

The U.S. public, upon realizing it was a fictional account, became indignant, and flooded the FCC with complaints. This resulted in the censure of Orson Welles and the Mercury Theatre, and CBS was ordered to never use the phrase "we interrupt this program" for dramatic effect. Welles had said that the War of the Worlds presentation was meant to be "the Mercury Theatre's own version of dressing up in a sheet, and saying, Boo!" Later, he regretted making the decision to air the program, and said , "I don't think we will choose anything like this again."

As the years went by, the U.S. public seemed to forgive Welles for his clever prank. Today, various radio stations around the nation re-broadcast the War of the Worlds every Halloween. In 1988, on the fiftieth anniversary of the original broadcast on CBS, West Windsor Township, New Jersey (in which Grover's Mill is located) held a Martian festival, which culminated with the unveiling of the Martian Landing Monument in Van Ness Park (left). Near the Grover's Mill Company, the water tower that nervous residents shot into pieces that fateful night in 1938 still stands for all who pass the area today.

So, the next time your favorite program is interrupted by a "Special Report"...


"Boo!" Time, 7 November 1938. Online http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,788886-1,00.html. Text downloaded 21 October 2007.

Lovgen, Stefan. "War of the Worlds: Behind the Radio Show Panic," National Geographic News, 17 June 2005. Online http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/06/0617_050617_warworlds.html. Text downloaded 21 October 2007.

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14 October 2007

Charlie Engelhard's "Project Grand Slam"

Almost everyone who is familiar with the James Bond series of films certainly has seen Goldfinger. And, anyone who has seen it will know how Auric Goldfinger deviously avoided import restrictions on gold by manufacturing ordinary objects (such as the fixtures on his own Rolls-Royce) to export his precious cargo out of England, and into Switzerland. At his Auric Enterprises plant, he installed golden chairs and other furnishings on the airplane that he used to travel to India. Once there, of course, the gold was melted down and sold at an enormous profit. From there, his greed led him to attempt to knock over Fort Knox, a plot, which, of course, was foiled by James Bond, with the support of his American colleague, Felix Leiter, with the U.S. Army in tow.

When Ian Fleming created the archvillain Goldfinger, he did not look very far to obtain his inspiration. In fact, it was one of his very own acquaintances who provided the role model for him: "Platinum King" Charles Engelhard, Jr. (left). Engelhard, as president of Engelhard Minerals and Chemicals Corporation, which was headquartered in Newark, New Jersey, imported precious metals, the majority of it in platinum, for use in industrial machinery components, and was also needed for the manufacture of scientific instruments. Engelhard had said of his precious metals business that "we'll handle anything that's small in volume, but high in value. But our nub will be platinum."

In Engelhard's quest for greater wealth, he traveled extensively in South Africa throughout the late 1940's and into the 1950's, and maintained an estate in Johannesburg. It was there that he forged a business partnership with his close friend Harry Oppenheimer and his firm DeBeers, which resulted in the formation of the Anglo African Corporation of Southern Africa, which managed assets of an estimated three billion dollars-- a princely sum in those days. Engelhard also served as chairman of the American - South African Investment Company of Johannesburg, which managed his South African mine interests. Through his control of Anglo-African and American-South African, Engelhard was able to find a way around the import restrictions placed on gold bullion in South Africa, restrictions that enabled England to keep South Africa's wealth within its control. Engelhard, ever the resourceful industrialist, saw an opportunity in a loophole in the restrictions-- objets d'art made from gold were able to be exported out of South Africa without restriction. With that in mind, he formed Precious Metals Development, a business venture that manufactured religious objects, as well as other objets d'art out of gold from Anglo-African's mines. The finished works were then imported to Hong Kong, where they were melted down into bullion, and then shipped to Engelhard's factories for his industrial uses, or sold as bullion for profit.

It was around this time that Engelhard had met Ian Fleming, author of the James Bond series of novels. It is said that the two men may have met through one of Engelhard's London bankers, Robert Fleming and Company, which was founded by Ian's grandfather. They had become friends, and on occasion had discussed the possibility of forming some sort of business partnership together. Fleming, impressed by the extravagant lifestyle of his friend, found real-life inspiration for the villain in Goldfinger, which was published in 1959. After all, a man who maintained a fleet of jets at his personal disposal, owned estates all over the world, and who also owned champion racehorses was practically beyond reality!

Apparently, Engelhard enjoyed the comparisons people often made between him and his fictional counterpart. After the movie Goldfinger was released in 1964, he even took to calling one of the stewardesses on his personal jet "Pussy Galore." Which only proves the kind of larger-than-life character that Charlie Engelhard was.

Fact is stranger than fiction. Indeed.


Epstein, Edward Jay. " The American Conspiracy." In The Diamond Invention. Online http://www.edwardjayepstein.com/diamond/chap18.htm. Text downloaded 14 October 2007.

Lycett, Andrew. Ian Fleming. London: Phoenix, 1996.

The New York Times. New York, New York, 3 March 1971.

O'Brian, Jack. "Voice of Broadway." Newark Star-Ledger. Newark, New Jersey, 21 September 1988.

12 October 2007

Stephen Yautz featured in BrandlandUSA Blog

Recently, Garland Pollard's BrandlandUSA Blog contained a post on "dead brand" Engelhard. To read more about what I had to say about Charles Engelhard (left), click here.

07 October 2007

Welcome to my Blog!

My Blog is going to be devoted to various historical topics, focusing on New Jersey, New York, and whatever else is of interest to me. Please stay tuned for upcoming installments on New Jersey native Charles Engelhard-- the Real Goldfinger. You will find, as I have, that his life was just as fascinating as his fictional counterpart, James Bond nemesis, Auric Goldfinger.

Meanwhile, a link to my website appears below.

Happy reading!